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Electro Magnets


An electromagnet consists of a coil of wire wrapped on an iron core and generates magnetic flux when electricity is allowed to pass through it. The coil forms the shape of the tube which is called as solenoid. If ferromagnetic material is placed inside the coil much stronger magnetic field can be created. Much stronger magnetic fields can be produced if a "core" of paramagnetic or ferromagnetic material (commonly iron) is placed inside the coil.


How Electromagnet Works?
Electric current when passes through the soft iron core, produces an energy which is called magnetic flux. If insulated wire is wrapped around an iron or steel object, a powerful magnetic field is produced. When electricity is passed through a coiled wire a stronger magnetic field is generated. The strength of the magnetic field depends upon and is directly proportional to the number of coils, the strength of the current, and the magnetic permeability of the core material. Apart from these factors, the number of turns made by the coil will determine the strength of the field.

Types of Electromagnets
On the basis of construction and usage custom electromagnets are of two types:
  • Horizontal Electromagnets
  • Vertical Electromagnets
Applications
Electro Magnets Electro magnets have wide industrial and non industrial applications which are as follows:
  • Circuit-breakers
  • Cars, they are used in electromagnet brakes and clutches.
  • Electric motors too are electromagnets.
  • Electromagnets are used in solenoid valves and door locks.
  • They are also used in a rotary electric motor to produce a revolving magnetic field that spins the rotor.
  • In linear motors, they produce a moving magnetic field that thrusts the projectile.
  • Electromagnets are used in particle accelerators.
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance studies
  • Magnetic susceptibility measurements
  • Hall effect studies
  • Magnetic hysteresis studies
  • It is also used in electric motors
  • Doorbells
  • Electric generators
  • Loudspeakers
  • Television receivers
  • Atomic particle accelerator
Energy and Electromagnets
  • Magnetic energy is stored by an electromagnets.
  • As electromagnet turns it consumes energy due to which current temporarily experiences a voltage drop.
  • As electromagnet turns off it releases energy which results in the rise of voltage.
  • Electromagnet opposes current charges.
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